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EMS Anatomy and Physiology Class Objectives image

Unit Terminal Objective:
At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will have demonstrated a thorough knowledge of normal anatomical structures and normal physiological processes while differentiating general concepts of pathophysiology for the assessment and management of the emergency patient.

Course Outline
I. An Introduction to the Human Body
II. The Chemical Level of Organization
III. The Cellular Level of Organization
IV. The Tissue Level of Organization
V. The Integumentary System
VI. The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue
VII. The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton
VIII. The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton
IX. Articulations
X. Muscle Tissue
XI. The Muscle System
XII. Nervous Tissue
XIII. The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
XIV. The Brain and Cranial Nerves
XV. Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems
XVI. The Special Senses
XVII. The Autonomic Nervous System
XVIII. The Endocrine System
XIX. The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
XX. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
XXI. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics
XXII. The Lymphatic System, Nonspecific Resistance to Disease and Immunity
XXIII. The Respiratory System
XXIV. The Digestive System
XXV. Metabolism
XXVI. The Urinary System
XXVII. Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis
XXVIII. The Reproductive Systems
XXIX. Development and Inheritance
XXX. Pathophysiology
XXXI. Research in EMS

Program Behavioral Objectives**
Behavioral attributes of the MICT student and certified MICT are very important. Because of this, we have developed behavioral objectives for the Cowley MICT student. These objectives are based on what is required of an MICT and employer expectations.
At the conclusion of the program, the MICT student must exhibit appropriate behavior in the following areas:

  • Integrity
  • Empathy
  • Self-Motivation
  • Appearance and Personal Hygiene
  • Self-Confidence
  • Communications
  • Time Management
  • Teamwork and Diplomacy
  • Respect
  • Patient Advocacy
  • Careful Delivery of Service

Other behavioral objectives, found in specific curricular areas, have also been developed as well (these are found in the specific class objectives). We strongly believe that the entry level paramedic must have the knowledge, ability to perform and have obtained appropriate professional behaviors.

KEY TO CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVES
(B) - Denotes a behavioral objective
(C) - Denotes a cognitive objective
(M) - Denotes a psychomotor objective
** Denotes objectives added to curriculum by Cowley

I. An Introduction to the Human Body
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structure, function and location of body regions and organs while understanding the concept of homeostasis.
*Define anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology.(C)
*Name the levels of organization of the body and explain each.(C)
*Name the organ systems of the body.(C)
*Define homeostasis and give an example of a typical homeostatic mechanism.(C)
**Describe the components of a feedback system.(C)
**Contrast the operation of negative and positive feedback systems.(C)
**Explain the relationship between homeostasis and disease.(C)
*Describe the anatomical position.(C)
*Describe the sagittal, midsagittal, transverse and frontal planes.(C)
*Use proper terminology to describe the location of body parts with respect to one another.(C)
*Name the body cavities, their membranes and some organs within each cavity.(C)
*Explain the four quadrants of the abdomen and name the organs in those areas.(C)
**Name and describe the nine abdominopelvic regions.(C)

II. The Chemical Level of Organization
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the chemical level of organization of the human body.
*Define matter, element, atom, proton, neutron, and electron.(C)
*Using symbols, name some common elements found in the body.(C)
*Describe the purpose of ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds in the body.(C)
**Define a chemical reaction and explain the basic differences between synthesis, decomposition, exchange, reversible, oxidation-reduction, exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions.(C)
*Describe what happens in synthesis and decomposition reactions.(C)
**List and compare the properties of inorganic acids, bases, salts, and water.(C)
*Explain the importance of water to the function of the body.(C)
*Describe where water is found in the body.(C)
*Explain the roles of oxygen and carbon dioxide in cell respiration.(C)
*Explain pH and state normal pH ranges in body fluids.(C)
*Explain how a buffer system resists major pH changes.(C)
*Describe the functions and types of sugars, fats, and proteins.(C)
*Explain how enzymes function as catalysts.(C)
*Describe the function of DNA, RNA and ATP.(C)

III. The Cellular Level of Organization
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the cellular level of organization of the human body.
*Name the organic molecules that make up the cell membrane and state their functions.(C)
*State the arrangement of the molecules in the cell membrane.(C)
*State the five functions of proteins in the cell membrane.(C)
*Describe the cytoplasm.(C)
*Describe how the cell membrane regulates the composition of the cytoplasm.(C)
*Explain isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions and their effects on the cell.(C)
*State the function of the nucleus and chromosomes.(C)
*Describe what happens in mitosis and meiosis and describe the importance of each.(C)
*Describe the function of the cell organelles.(C)
**Describe the structure and functions of the following cellular structures: cytosol, nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, flagella, cilia and centrosome.(C)
*Define each of these cellular transport mechanisms and give an example of the role of each in the body: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, filtration, phagocytosis and pinocytosis.(C)

IV. The Tissue Level of Organization
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the tissue level of organization of the human body.
*Describe the four major categories of tissues and give general characteristics of each.(C)
*Describe the function of epithelial tissue depending on their location.(C)
*Describe the functions of connective tissue and relate them to the function of the body or an organ system.(C)
*Explain the basic differences between smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle.(C)
*Describe in brief nervous tissue.(C)
*Name the organs made of nerve tissue.(C)
*Describe the location of pleural membranes, pericardial membranes, and the perineum- mesentery.(C)
*State the location of mucous membranes and state the function of mucus.(C)
*Name some membranes made of connective tissue.(C)
**Describe the structure and functions of the three principle types of cell junctions.(C)

V. The Integumentary System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the integumentary system.
*State the three functions of the integumentary system.(C)
**Describe the anatomy and the seven functions of the skin.(C)
*Name the two layers of skin.(C)
*State the location and function of the stratum corneum and the stratum germinativum.(C)
*Describe the function of melanocytes and melanin.(C)
*Describe the function of hair and nails.(C)
*Describe the functions of the secretions of sebaceous glands, ceruminous glands and eccrine sweat glands.(C)
*Describe how the arterioles in the dermis respond to heat, cold, and stress.(C)
**Outline the steps involved in epidermal wound healing and deep wound healing.(C)
*Name the tissues that make up the subcutaneous tissue and describe their functions.(C)

VI. Bone Tissue
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of bone tissue.
*Describe the function of the skeleton.(C)
*Explain how bones are classified and give an example of each.(C)
**Identify the parts of a long bone.(C)
**Describe the histological features of compact and spongy bone tissue.(C)
*Describe how the embryonic skeleton is replaced by bone.(C)
*State the nutrients necessary for bone growth.(C)
*Name the hormones involved in bone growth and maintenance.(C)
**Define a fracture, describe several common kinds of fractures, and describe the sequence of events involved in fracture repair.(C)
*Explain what is meant by exercise for bones and explain its importance.(C)

VII. The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the axial skeleton.
*Identify the two major subdivisions of the skeleton and list the bones in each area.(C)
**Identify principle sutures, fontanelles, paranasal sinuses, and foramina of the skull.(C)
**Identify the bones of the vertebral column and their principal markings.(C)
**Identify the bones of the thorax and their principal markings.(C)

VIII. The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the appendicular skeleton.
**Identify the bones of the pectoral (shoulder) girdle.(C)
**Identify the upper limb and its component bones.(C)
**Identify the components of the pelvic (hip) girdle.(C)
**Identify the lower limb and its component bones.(C)

IX. Articulations
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of joints.
**Define an articulation (joint) and identify the factors that determine the types and degree (range) of movement at a joint.(C)
*Explain how joints are classified; give an example of each and describe the movements possible.(C)
*Describe the parts of a synovial joint and explain their function.(C)

X. Muscle Tissue
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of muscle tissue.
*Describe muscle structure in terms of muscle cells, tendons and bones.(C)
*Describe the difference between antagonistic and synergistic muscles.(C)
*Name the energy sources for muscle contraction and state the simple equation for cell respiration.(C)
*Explain the importance of hemoglobin and myoglobin and oxygen debt and lactic acid.(C)
*Describe the neuromuscular junction and explain the function for each part.(C)
*Describe the structure of a sarcomere.(C)
*Explain polarization, depolarization and repolarization in terms of ions and charges.(C)
*Describe the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.(C)
**Explain the roles played by muscle in homeostasis of body temperature.(C)
**Explain how muscle tension can be varied.(C)
**Identify the sources of ATP used during muscular contraction.(C)
**Describe the different types of skeletal muscle fibers and compare them to cardiac and smooth muscle fibers.(C)

XI. The Muscular System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the muscular system.
*State the major muscles of the body and their functions.(C)
**Define the criteria employed in naming skeletal muscles.(C)
**Describe the relationship between bones and skeletal muscles in producing body movements.(C)
**Devine a lever and fulcrum and compare the three classes of levers on the basis of placement of the fulcrum, effort and resistance.(C)
**Discuss the administration of drugs by intramuscular injections.(C)

XII. Nervous Tissue
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of nervous tissue.
*Name the divisions of the nervous system and state the general functions of each.(C)
**Identify the three basic functions of the nervous system in maintaining homeostasis.(C)
*Name the parts of a neuron and the function of each.(C)
*Explain the importance of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and neuroglia in the central nervous system.(C)
*Describe the electrical nerve impulse and impulse transmission at the synapse.(C)
*Describe the types of neurons, nerves and nerve tracts.(C)
**Define gray and white matter and give examples of each.(C)
**Describe the cellular properties that permit communication among neurons and muscle fibers.(C)
**Describe the factors that contribute to generation of a resting membrane potential.(C)
**List the sequence of events involved in generation of a nerve action potential.(C)

XIII. The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
**Describe the protection and gross anatomical features of the spinal cord.(C)
**Describe the functions of the principal sensory and motor tracts of the spinal cord.(C)
*Explain the importance of stretch reflexes and flexor reflexes.(C)
*Describe the reflex arc.(C)
**Describe the clinical significance of dermatomes and myotomes.(C)

XIV. The Brain and Cranial Nerves
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the brain and cranial nerves.
*State the functions of the parts of the brain and locate each part on a diagram.(C)
*Name the meninges and describe their locations.(C)
*State the locations and functions of cerebrospinal fluid.(C)
**Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.(C)
**Describe the blood supply to the brain and the blood-brain barrier.(C)
**Define a cranial nerve and identify the 12 pairs of cranial nerves by name, number, type, location and function.(C)

XV. Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of sensory, motor and integrative systems.
*Explain the general purpose of sensations.(C)
**Describe the classification of receptors.(C)
*Name the parts of the sensory pathway and the general functions of each part.(C)
*Describe the characteristics of sensations.(C)
*Name the cutaneous senses and explain their purpose.(C)
*Explain referred pain and explain its importance.(C)
**Distinguish somatic, visceral, referred, and phantom pain.(C)
*Explain the importance of proprioception, or muscle sense.(C)
**Describe the integration of sensory input and motor output.(C)
**Compare the location and functions of the direct and indirect motor pathways.(C)
**Explain how the basal ganglia and cerebellum contribute to motor responses.(C)
**Compare integrative functions such as learning, memory, wakefulness and sleep.(C)

XVI. The Special Senses
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the special senses.
*Describe the pathways for the senses of smell and taste and explain how these senses are interrelated.(C)
**Locate the receptors for olfaction and describe the neural pathway for smell.(C)
**Identify the gustatory receptors and describe the neural pathway for taste.(C)
*Name the parts of the eye and explain their function in sight.(C)
**Discuss image formation by describing refraction, accommodation, and constriction of the pupil.(C)
**Describe the retinal processing of visual input and the neural pathway of light impulses to the brain.(C)
*Name the parts of the ear and explain their function in hearing.(C)
*Describe the physiology of equilibrium.(C)

XVII. The Autonomic Nervous System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the autonomic nervous system.
**Compare the structural and functional differences of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.(C)
**Identify the principal structural features of the autonomic nervous system.(C)
**Compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in terms of anatomy, physiology, and the neurotransmitters released.(C)
**Describe the effects of alpha and beta stimulation.(C)
**Describe the effects of alpha and beta blockade.(C)
**Describe the various neurotransmitters and receptors involved in autonomic responses.(C)
**Explain the relationship of the hypothalamus to the autonomic nervous system.(C)

XVIII. The Endocrine System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the endocrine system.
**Define the components of the endocrine system and discuss the functions of the endocrine and nervous systems in maintaining homeostasis.(C)
*Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands.(C)
**Explain why the hypothalamus is considered to be an endocrine gland.(C)
**Describe the location, histology, hormones, and functions of the following endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal, and thymus.(C)
*Define hormone and prostaglandin.(C)
*Identify the primary endocrine glands and list the major hormones secreted by each.(C)
*Explain the roles of positive and negative feedback mechanisms in hormone secretions.(C)
*Describe the relationship between parathyroid hormone and calcitonin.(C)
*Describe the relationship between insulin and glucagon.(C)
*Explain what prostaglandins are made of and state some of their functions.(C)
*Explain how protein hormones are believed to exert their effects.(C)
*Explain how steroid hormones are believed to exert their effects.(C)

XIX. The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the blood.
*Describe the primary functions of blood.(C)
**Contrast the general roles of blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid in maintaining homeostasis.(C)
**List the components of plasma and explain their importance.(C)
*List the formed elements of blood and state the primary functions of each.(C)
*Name the hemopoietic tissues and the kinds of blood cells each produces.(C)
*Identify the anatomy of the hemopoietic system.(C)
*Describe volume and volume-control related to the hemopoietic system.(C)
*Identify and describe the blood-forming organs.(C)
*Describe normal red blood cell (RBC) production, function and destruction.(C)
*Explain the significance of the hematocrit with respect to red cell size and number.(C)
*Explain the correlation of the RBC count, hematocrit and hemoglobin values.(C)
*Define anemia.(C)
*Describe normal white blood cell (WBC) production, function and destruction.(C)
*Describe what happens to red blood cells at the end of their life span including the fate of hemoglobin.(C)
*Explain the ABO and Rh blood types.(C)
*Identify blood groups. (C)
*Name the five kinds of white blood cells and the functions of each.(C)
*Identify the characteristics of the inflammatory process.(C)
*Identify the difference between cellular and humoral immunity.(C)
*Identify alterations in immunologic response.(C)
*Describe the number, normal function, types and life span of leukocytes.(C)
*List the leukocyte disorders.(C)
*State what platelets are and explain how they are involved in hemostasis.(C)
*Describe the three stages of blood clotting.(C)
*Describe platelets with respect to normal function, life span and numbers.(C)
*Describe the components of the hemostatic mechanism.(C)
*Describe the function of coagulation factors, platelets and blood vessels necessary for normal coagulation.(C)
*Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting systems with respect to identification of factor deficiencies in each stage.(C)
*Explain how abnormal clotting is prevented in the vascular system.(C)
*Define fibrinolysis.

XX. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the heart.
*Describe the location of the heart in terms of body cavities and relationship to other structures.(C)
*Name the chambers of the heart and the vessels that enter or leave each. (C)
*State the valves of the heart and their function.(C)
*State how heart sounds are created.(C)
*Trace the pathway of a blood cell throughout the body.(C)
*Describe coronary circulation.(C)
*Describe the cardiac conduction pathway and its relationship to a normal electrocardiogram.(C)
*Explain stroke volume, cardiac output and Starling's law of the heart.(C)
**Define cardiac output (CO) and describe the factors that affect it.(C)
*Explain how the nervous system regulates the function of the heart.(C)

XXI. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of blood vessels and gain an understanding of hemodynamics.
*Describe the structure and function of each of the blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries.(C)
*Describe the exchange of gases that occur at the capillary level.(C)
*Name the major systemic arteries and the parts of the body they nourish.(C)
*Name the major systemic veins and the parts of the body they drain of blood.(C)
*Define blood pressure and state the normal ranges for the systolic and diastolic indices.(C)
**Explain how blood pressure changes throughout the cardiovascular system and describe the factors that determine mean arterial pressure.(C)
**Describe the factors that determine systemic vascular resistance and explain how the return of venous blood to the heart is accomplished.(C)

XXII. The Lymphatic System, Nonspecific Resistance to Disease and Immunity
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the lymphatic system while understanding immunity and nonspecific resistance to disease.
*Describe the functions of the lymphatic system.(C)
*State how lymph is formed.(C)
*Describe the system of lymph vessels and explain how lymph is returned to the blood.(C)
*State the location and function of lymph nodules and nodes.(C)
*State the location and function of the spleen.(C)
*Define immunity.(C)
*Explain the role of the thymus in immunity.(C)
*Explain the differences between humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.(C)
*Compare and contrast the development and function of B cells and T cells.(C)
*Describe the differences between acquired immunity and genetic immunity.(C)
*Explain how vaccines work.(C)
**Discuss the roles of the skin and mucous membranes, antimicrobial substances, phagocytosis, inflammation, and fever in nonspecific resistance to disease.(C)
**Explain the relationship between antigen and antibody.(C)

XXIII. The Respiratory System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the respiratory system.
*State the general function of the respiratory system.(C)
*State the pathway of the respiratory system including nasal cavities, pharynx and larynx.(C)
*State the function of the turbinates in the nasal cavity.(C)
*Describe the structure and function of the larynx and the speaking mechanism.(C)
*State the roles of the visceral and parietal pleura in respiration.(C)
*State the changes in air pressure within the thoracic cavity during respiration.(C)
*Explain the diffusion of gases in external and internal respiration.(C)
*Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood.(C)
*Explain the nervous and chemical mechanisms that regulate respiration.(C)
*Explain how respiration affects the pH of certain body fluids.(C)

XXIV. The Digestive System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the digestive system.
*Describe the general function of the digestive system and name the major divisions.(C)
*Identify the accessory organs of digestion.(C)
*Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion.(C)
*Describe the structure and function of the teeth and tongue.(C)
*Explain the function of saliva.(C)
*Describe the location and function of the pharynx and esophagus.(C)
*List and describe the four layers of the alimentary canal.(C)
*Describe the difference in absorption between the large and small intestine.(C)
*Describe the function of the normal flora in the colon.(C)
*Define peristalsis.(C)
*Define chyme.(C)
*State the normal range of body temperature.(C)

XXV. Metabolism
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of metabolism.
**Explain how food intake is regulated.(C)
*Define metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.(C)
**Describe oxidation-reduction reactions and explain the role of ATP in metabolism.(C)
*State the different ways heat is generated and lost in the body.(C)
*State why the hypothalamus is the thermostat of the body.(C)
*State what the products of cell respiration are and how the body disposes of them.(C)
*Describe the metabolic roles of fats, glucose and proteins.(C)
*Describe basal metabolic rate and the factors that affect it.(C)
*Define kilocalories.(C)

XXVI. The Urinary System
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the urinary system.
*Describe the location and general function of each organ in the urinary system.(C)
*Name the parts of a nephron.(C)
*Define glomerular filtration rate.(C)
**Discuss the process of glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.(C)
*Describe how the kidneys function in maintaining normal blood volume and pressure.(C)
*Describe how the kidneys help to maintain normal blood pH and electrolyte balance.(C)
*State the hormones that affect kidney function.(C)
*Explain the interaction between capillary blood pressure and blood proteins.(C)
*Describe the characteristics of normal urine.(C)
**Discuss the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.(C)

XXVII. Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will understand acid-base homeostasis as it relates to body fluids and electrolytes.
*Describe the water compartments and the name for the water in each.(C)
*Explain how water moves between the compartments.(C)
*Explain how water is taken in by the body and exits the body.(C)
**Describe an acid and a base.(C)
**List the mechanisms which primarily control acid-base balance.(C)
**Describe the components on the ABG.(C)
**Given an ABG report, analyze the results of the findings.(C)

XXVIII. The Reproductive Systems
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe the structural components and functional aspects of the reproductive systems.
**Define reproduction and classify the organs of reproduction by function.(C)
*Define diploid and haploid.(C)
*Describe the difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.(C)
*Define gametes.(C)
*Name the hormones necessary for the formation of gametes.(C)
*List the essential and accessory organs of the male and female, give the general function of each.(C)
*Identify and describe the structures that constitute external genitals in both sexes.(C)
*Name the parts of a sperm cell.(C)
*Define endometrium.(C)
*Briefly describe the life cycle of an oocyte.(C)
*Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of change sin hormone levels and the condition of the endometrium.(C)
*Beginning with fertilization, describe the major developmental changes during gestation.(C)
*Describe the structure and function of the placenta and umbilical cord.(C)
*Describe the difference between fetal circulation/respiration and adult circulation/respiration.(C)
*State the length of an average gestation period.(C)
*Describe the states of labor.(C)
*Describe the major changes that take place in an infant at birth.(C)
*Explain how microorganisms are named and classified.(C)
*Describe the distribution of and the benefits of normal flora.(C)
*Explain what is meant by infectious disease.(C)
*Describe the different methods by which infectious diseases are spread.(C)
*List some important infectious diseases.(C)

XXIX. Development and Inheritance
**Unit objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to describe development and inheritance.
**Explain the processes associated with fertilization, formation of morula, development of a blastocyst, and implantation.(C)
*Discuss the principal maternal body changes associated with embryonic and fetal growth.(C)
*Compare the sources and functions of the hormones secreted during pregnancy.(C)
*Describe the anatomical and physiological changes associated with gestation.(C)
*Discuss the physiology and control of lactation.(C)
*Define inheritance and describe the inheritance of several traits.(C)

XXX. Pathophysiology
Unit Objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to apply the general concepts of pathophysiology for the assessment and management of emergency patients.
*Discuss cellular adaptation.(C)
*Describe cellular injury and cellular death.(C)
*Describe the factors that precipitate disease in the human body.(C)
*Describe the cellular environment.(C)
*Describe the pathology and clinical manifestations and prognosis associated with:(C)
a. Anemia
b. Leukemia
c. Lymphomas
d. Polycythemia
e. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
f. Hemophilia
g. Sickle cell disease
h. Multiple myeloma
*Integrate pathophysiological principles into the assessment of a patient with hematologic disease.(C)
*Discuss hypoperfusion.(C)
*Define cardiogenic, hypovolemic, neurogenic, anaphylactic and septic shock.(C)
*Describe multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.(C)
*Define the characteristics of the immune response.(C)
*Discuss induction of the immune system.(C)
*Discuss fetal and neonatal immune function.(C)
*Discuss aging and the immune function in the elderly.(C)
*Describe the inflammation response.(C)
*Discuss the role of mast cells as part of the inflammation response.(C)
*Describe the plasma protein system.(C)
*Discuss the cellular components of inflammation.(C)
*Describe the systemic manifestations of the inflammation response.(C)
*Describe the resolution and repair from inflammation.(C)
*Discuss the effect of aging on the mechanisms of self-defense.(C)
*Discuss hypersensitivity.(C)
*Describe deficiencies in immunity and inflammation.(C)
*Describe homeostasis as a dynamic steady state.(C)
*List types of tissue.(C)
*Describe the systemic manifestations that result from cellular injury.(C)
*Describe neuroendocrine regulation.(C)
*Discuss the inter-relationships between stress, coping, and illness.(C)
*Describe how acquired factor deficiencies may occur.(C)
*Define genetic disease.(C)
*Explain how genes can cause disease.(C)
*Define homologous chromosomes, autosomes, sex chromosomes and genes.(C)
*Define alleles, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, and heterozygous.(C)
*Discuss the difference between dominant and recessive traits.(C)
*List some important genetic diseases.(C)
*Discuss analyzing disease risk.(C)
*Describe environmental risk factors.(C)
*Discuss combined effects and interaction among risk factors.(C)
*Describe aging as a risk factor for disease.(C)
*Discuss familial diseases and associated risk factors.(C)

XXXI. Research in EMS**
**Unit Objective: At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will understand the importance of research while being exposed to different methods of study and sources of information.(C)
**Understand that every field advances with information gained through research.(C)
**Define basic statistical terms.(C)
**Differentiate between descriptive, case-control, cohort and intervention studies.(C)

 

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