Non-Destructive Testing Facilities
Ultrasonic Inspection (Testing) is an inspection technique
that requires a couple of things, 1 a UT Scope, 2 a Transducer, and 3
a part to inspect. The way it works is, you hook the transducer to the
scope and put the transducer on the part and create sound waves into
the part, you then wait on the sound waves to bounce back at you from
the bottom of the part or a reflector and when that sound returns to
the transducer, it is amplified and put on you’re A, B, or C Scan
readout. After that you can determine whether or not the part is acceptable
This is an Ultrasonic Pulse Echo or Through transmission machine, it
takes the returned sound energy that has been created from the transducer
and compiles the information into an easy to read C-Scan or Top View
of the part. It plots the flaws directly out on the screen in respect
to where they are in the part. This is a very widely used machine in
the aircraft industry for locating and sizing defects in panels created
This row of instruments are Ultrasonic Flaw detectors using an A –Scan
presentation, they plot the defects inside the part out on a time / distance
based readout. The reflectors are easily located due to the calibration
techniques that we discuss throughout the course.
The above two pictures are pictures of an ultrasonic flaw detector with
the A-Scan in use, the flaw detector is showing in the first picture
a “good” material, the second picture is showing the same
part, with a flaw indicated by the extra signals along the baseline of
is our fluorescent penetrant line, fluorescent penetrant is one of
the most widely used NDT methods due to its sensitivity of very small
finite details that occur on the surface of non magnetic materials.
It is a very easy to use method and is a very widely used method throughout
any NDT business. Penetrant inspection consists of the following steps.
1. Preclean the part to be inspected. 2. Put a penetrating liquid
on the part, 3. After a suitable waiting time remove the penetrant.
4. Dry the surface of the part. 5. Apply a developing (powder) agent
to the part. 6. After a suitable waiting time, evaluate the part. (Accept
This is one of our Magnetic Particle machines, magnetic particle inspection
is the inspection of ferromagnetic “magnetic” parts, for
surface or slightly subsurface flaws or defects that could be detrimental
to the life or service of any part. Magnetic Particle Inspection is the
sister inspection to liquid penetrant due to being able to look at surface
defects. It also is a very widely used method throughout any NDT business.
The magnetic particle process is as follows, Apply a magnetizing force
to the part, and then a fluid that carries iron filings, then evaluate
the part for defects(flaws).
Radiographic Testing (X-Ray) consists of exposing the
part to be inspected to X-Rays, putting a film under that part before
inspection and after the suitable time required for the exposure, develop
and read(interpret) that film.
This picture is a typical X-Ray Cabinet that you will find in many businesses
today, It is just a lead lined cabinet with an X-Ray tube mounted inside,
the lead is to keep the radiation from escaping and harming anyone.
This is a picture of a typical X-Ray tube that is found in industry.
The above is a new emerging technology of Computed Radiography, most
major companies are transitioning to this technology in order of reducing
their costs of Film and the developing process. This process uses reusable
plates that are exposed and put into a laser reader and it displays the
latent image on the computer screen.
The 3 above pictures are of tools and equipment that are used in Visual/Dimensional
inspections of any part that is to be dimensionally inspected. The first
two pictures are of our Cooridinate Measuring Machine (CMM). That is
a machine that is attached to a computer and can gives digital readouts
of all of the measurements that are needed or wanted. The final picture
is of the conventional equipment (Micrometers, Vernier Calipers, Height
gauges, and many more). These are the instruments that companies use
to get the actual dimensions that a part is. These dimensions are then
compared to a blueprint for the accept / reject criteria.